People from white and mixed ethnic groups had lower life expectancy compared with Black and Asian groups in England and Wales between 2011 和 2014, according to analysis by the 国家统计局 (ONS).
这 学习 linked 2011 census and death registration data to produce estimates of life expectancy and cause of death by ethnic group.
White and mixed ethnic women had a life expectancy of 83.1 年, while for Black African women the figure was 88.9. White and mixed ethnic men had life expectancies of 79.7 和 79.3 years respectively, while the figure for those in the “Asian other” group – Asian, but not Indian or Bangladeshi or Chinese – 曾是 84.5, and for Black African men 83.8.
Dr Veena Raleigh, a senior fellow at the King’s Fund thinktank, said the ONS analysis was robust and consistent with previous research. Academics and commentators often say ethnic minorities have the worst health outcomes, 她说, “but that’s not always supported by the evidence”.
One key reason for higher life expectancy among ethnic minorities is the so-called “healthy migrant effect”. There is evidence that migrants tend to be healthier, with lower levels of smoking, alcohol consumption and other risk factors, 她说, noting that this effect wanes over time as the following generations generally assume similar lifestyles to native populations.
有, 然而, specific diseases that tend to disproportionately afflict certain groups. Mortality driven by heart disease is significantly higher in people of Asian ethnicity, while there are significantly higher rates of cancer in white people compared with Black and Asian ethnic groups.
“所以, there are ethnic differences in health, but we need to be very precise in knowing what the data is showing, and targeting the specific factors affecting health in specific groups,” Raleigh said. “It’s a kaleidoscope … and you need a magnifying glass to identify what the problems are, why they’re occurring, and how they should be addressed.”
Dr Raghib Ali, a senior clinical research associate at the University of Cambridge, said the data showed the disproportionate impact of Covid on minority ethnic groups had reversed their previous mortality advantage rather than making a previous disadvantage worse.
As exemplified by Covid, the biggest driver of worse health outcomes is deprivation, Raleigh said, noting that there were millions of poor, white people who are also affected by health inequalities.
“This is about reducing health inequalities overall and in specific groups as indicated … addressing ethnic minority health needs where indicated, but also addressing the health needs of poor white people,“ 她说. “I think that’s how nationally we will get to a better place.”