性别养老金差距: 女性如何提高退休金

w ^预兆仍然面临退休,他们的养老金储蓄远远少于男性. 低工资是造成性别养老金差距的一个主要因素,因为女性经常从事兼职工作或成为自雇人士来管理家庭负担.

一般, 妇女挣大约 16% 少于男性, 根据国家统计局的最新数据.

养家糊口的时间也可能导致国家保险记录被破坏, 多年来根本没有把钱存入储蓄.

本星期, 保险人 法律 & 已发表的一般研究表明,女性在每个年龄段的养老金金额都较低, 随着他们接近退休,情况“显着恶化”.

这个调查, 根据来自的数据 4 万升&G 养老金计划成员, 发现典型的性别养老金差距是 17% 在女性职业生涯的开始并增加到 56% 与男性相比,退休时.

同时, 平均 L&退休妇女的 G 养老金罐 (10,000 英镑) 被发现不到男人的一半 (21,000 英镑).

然而, 一些女性正在逆流而上. 这里, 我们与处于不同人生阶段的女性交谈,她们决心在生育前增加养老金储蓄, 并进入, 退休.

桑德拉扳手, 从贝德福德, 推迟七年半领取国家养老金,使她的国家养老金翻了一番, 并支付一些额外的养老金.

五月以来, 她每年收到大约 16,000 英镑的国家养老金, 除了她从工作中获得的 11,000 英镑的最终工资养老金之外.

“这比我工作时的总收入还多,”扳手说, 谁在工作部工作,并且 养老金, 和 18 在国家养老金部门工作的年数.

“所以我知道延迟的好处, 并在此计划实施期间支付国家养老金充值,“ 她说.

当她转身 60, 桑德拉部分退休, 将她的工作周减少到 17 小时. “这条路, 我可以坚持更久,“ 她说.

由于桑德拉之前达到了国家领取养老金的年龄 6 四月 2016, 她能够通过以下方式增加她的权利 1% 每五个星期她就推迟开始服用, 在旧体制下.

“我也用遗产来支付 自愿 3A 类捐款 每周额外支付 25 英镑的额外养老金,但该计划仅适用于几年,”她补充道. “这是为了给那些收到旧的, 较小的国家养老金有机会增加他们收到的金额。”

通过将延迟支付她的国家养老金与额外金额相结合, 她的价值翻了一番,从每周约 151 英镑增加到每周 310 英镑.

“妇女不应该在最后一分钟之前检查他们的国家养老金,”她强调. “早晚更正任何错误更容易, 还有一些方法可以增加你获得的金额。”

凯西正在尽其所能增加她的养老金, 怀揣着早点退休的梦想.

“我想在三年左右开始逐步退休,”凯西说, 谁在保险公司担任客户关系经理. “然后我想花更多的时间帮助孙子孙女,或者做一些不同的事情,比如志愿服务。”

凯西, 谁希望在以下时间领取她的国家养老金 67, 在固定缴款养老金中节省了 587,000 英镑, 也称为货币购买计划. 这包括大约 367,000 英镑的公司养老金,她现在的雇主, 和其他几个, 以前工作的小罐子.

“当时我开始审视自己的养老金 何时引入自动注册 [在 2012] 国家领取养老金的年龄开始提高,“ 她说, 她补充说,她将支付给公司养老金的金额增加到大约 15% 工资, 她现在的雇主贡献的少一点.

离婚者住在谢菲尔德,有两个儿子, 老龄化 26 和 23.

“我认为掌控自己的未来很重要,“ 她说. “我有一个伴侣,但我们没有结婚,而且我一直在经济上独立。”

通过使用在线退休计算器, 凯西计算出,她的养老金储蓄可以从年龄开始提供每年约 24,000 英镑的收入。 60, 取决于投资增长.

Jess 知道抽出时间来抚养她的儿子会对她的养老金产生严重影响.

“但我很幸运, 因为我从父母那里学到了储蓄的价值, 我已经积累了一些退休储蓄,“ 她说.

她在活动管理部门工作,但自从有了她的儿子, 谁快三岁了, she has struggled to find a job that was sufficiently flexible to cope with nursery pickups.

“It’s a situation so many mums find themselves in,” says Jess, from West Hampstead in north-west London. “I’m not able to pay into a pension at the moment but I’m working hard juggling a lot at home.”

Her husband works in finance, and as the lower earner, she took a career break to raise their son. She is now retraining as a self-employed naturopathic health coach.

Jess has about £100,000 in a self-invested personal pension (Sipp) with Interactive Investor, after consolidating four pensions from previous employment.

“My dad set up a Sipp and Isa for me when I was little, so I had a head start, 也,“ 她说.

“I don’t know why women aren’t told at school about the value of a pension. They often bear the brunt of a massive savings gap in their 30s.”

Jess manages her pension herself, investing in a range of shares and funds within her Sipp.

“If I went back into full-time employment, I’d see a pension as one of the biggest benefits,”她补充道. “When I can, I’ll start paying in again.”

The full new state pension is currently £179.60 a week. You will need 35 years’ worth of qualifying NICs to receive the full state pension, which may consist of earnings-related contributions, national insurance credits (例如, if you were unemployed, ill or a parent or carer) or voluntary contributions. You will usually need at least 10 “qualifying years” on your NIC record to get any state pension.

You can check your record at gov.uk/check-national-insurance-record to see: what you have paid, up to the start of the current tax year; any national insurance credits you have received; if gaps in contributions or credits mean some years do not count towards your state pension (那是, they are not qualifying years); and if you can pay voluntary contributions to fill any gaps, and how much this will cost.

If you find there are gaps, check the government website for things such as who is eligible to pay class 2 或者 class 3 contributions and how it all works.

The rates for the 2021-22 tax year are £3.05 a week (£158.60 for a year) for class 2, and £15.40 a week (£800.80 for a year) for class 3.

同时, if you are claiming child benefit for a child aged up to 12, or a carer’s allowance for an adult, you are entitled to NI credits, which contribute towards your state pension entitlement.

You can still save up to £2,880 into a pension each tax year if you are not working, and the government will boost this by £720 through tax relief, which means £3,600 in total goes into your pot. These are the figures for the current 2021-22 tax year.

If this is affordable, your savings can come out of other accounts, such as a bank savings account, or your partner may pay into a pension on your behalf.

“If you stop paying in, your employer can stop, 也,” says Sarah Coles, a personal finance analyst at the investment firm Hargreaves Lansdown. “And if you can afford to keep up contributions, you’ll pay less because you only pay in a percentage of your maternity pay. But your employer has to continue at their usual level.”

“Women planning to take a career break should try to pay extra into their pension before they stop working, to compensate for the future loss of employer contributions,” says Kay Ingram, a chartered financial planner at LEBC Group. Some employers will offer to match extra contributions, and tax relief also boosts personal savings.

There are plenty of free tools and websites that can guide you along the way. The insurer Aviva offers a “Mid-Life MOT” app that can show you where your retirement savings stand and how to fix shortfalls. At retirement, there is the government-backed free guidance service Pension Wise at www.pensionwise.gov.uk to help understand your options. You can also use one of the many online retirement income calculators, such as the investment company Fidelity’s MyPlan.

For every nine weeks you delay (defer) taking your state pension, it increases by 1%, which works out at just under 5.8% for a year. So if you are entitled to £179.60 a week, by deferring for 52 weeks you will get an extra £10.42 a week. (The above applies to those reaching state pension age after 6 四月 2016).

If you are healthy and want to stay in work, this could make sense. But be aware that, based on those numbers, it would take you 17 years to earn back all of the pension you missed out on by deferring for a year.

所以, as the former pensions minister Ros Altmann has put it, if you go down this road, you need to live for a long time in order to make up for the period in which you received nothing.

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